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Published Research

OFA conducts research to assess the effectiveness of its interventions on climate, behavior, retention, and faculty success. We have delivered national presentations and published peer-reviewed research on faculty in Health Sciences.

Peer-Reviewed Publications

2021 - 2020

A System-Wide Health Sciences Faculty Mentor Training Program Is Associated with Improved Effective Mentoring and Institutional Climate | December 2021 | JoAnn Trejo, PhD, MBA, Deborah Wingard, PhD, Virginia Hazen, PhD, Alexandra Bortnick, PhD, Karen Van Hoesen, MD, Angela Byars-Winston, PhD, Christine Pfund, PhD, Vivian Reznik, MD, MPH

Abstract: Mentorship is critical for faculty success, satisfaction, and engagement. However, many faculty, particularly underrepresented racial/ethnic (UR) faculty, lack access to high quality mentoring. In an effort to improve mentoring for all faculty, we developed and implemented a formal structured faculty mentor training program (FMTP) across UC San Diego Health Sciences, which included institutional support, mentorship training and department/division mentorship programs.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/cts.2021.883

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The burden of service for faculty of color to achieve diversity and inclusion: the minority tax | November 2020 | JoAnn Trejo, PhD, MBA

Abstract: The exclusion of Blacks/African-Americans, Latinx/Hispanics, and Indigenous people from science has resulted in their underrepresentation in the biomedical workforce, especially in academia. Faculty diversity at academic institutions is unacceptably low (<6%) and has remained unchanged in the past 20 years. Despite low representation, faculty of color are disproportionately tasked with service to enhance diversity and inclusion of the academy, often to the detriment of their research and academic success. This essay offers a perspective on the undue burden of service placed on underrepresented faculty to achieve institutional diversity and inclusion. I reflect on the challenges that faculty of color face trying to maintain a competitive research program while serving the needs of the academy, often in a capacity greater than that of their well-represented peers. I also discuss opportunities for faculty of color to leverage related diversity and inclusion work to boost their career progression and academic advancement.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e20-08-0567

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2019 - 2015

Faculty Equity, Diversity, Culture and Climate Change in Academic Medicine | February 2019 | Deborah Wingard, PhD, JoAnn Trejo, PhD, MBA, Monica Gudea, Seneca Goodman, Vivian Reznik, MD, MPH

Abstract: There is a national call for academic medicine to use evidence-based initiatives to improve its culture and climate. The authors report data-driven policy and programmatic interventions that were associated with increased faculty diversity, equity, respectful behavior and improved faculty climate, at UC San Diego Health Sciences...

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnma.2018.05.004

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Faculty Equity, Diversity, Culture and Climate Change in Academic Medicine | November 2017 | JoAnn Trejo, PhD, MBA

Abstract: The 21st century is nearly two decades old, and the faculty ranks at our educational institutions remain sparsely diverse. While educational institutions are continually being challenged to increase the diversity of their faculty, progress is slow. This essay offers a perspective on the importance of diversity in our educational institutions as well as on the traditional metrics that our institutions use to evaluate faculty in hiring, promotion, and tenure. I also reflect on how my life experiences as a person of color provided me with the skills needed to succeed as an academic in science and inspired me to dedicate myself to work to increase the representation of women and people of color in science and in our educational institutions to create an inclusive environment for all members of the scientific community.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e17-08-0505

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The Culture of Academic Medicine: Faculty Behaviors Impacting the Learning Environment | May 2016 | Christine Moutier, MD, Deborah Wingard, PhD, Monica Gudea, Dilip Jeste, MD,Seneca Goodman, Vivian Reznik, MD, MPH

AbstractObjective The culture of academic medical institutions impacts trainee education, among many other faculty and patient outcomes. Disrespectful behavior by faculty is one of the most challenging and common problems that, left unattended, disrupts healthy work and learning environments. Conversely, a respectful environment facilitates learning, creates a sense of safety, and rewards professionalism...

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40596-016-0582-3

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2014 - 2010

Measuring Faculty Retention and Success in Academic Medicine | August 2012 | Andrew Ries, MD, MPH, Deborah Wingard, PhD, Anthony Gamst, PhD, Catherine Larsen, MPH, Elizabeth Farrell, Vivian Reznik, MD, MPH

AbstractPurpose To develop and demonstrate the usefulness of quantitative methods for assessing retention and academic success of junior faculty in academic medicine. Method The authors created matched sets of participants and nonparticipants in a junior faculty development program based on hire date and academic series for newly hired assistant professors at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), School of Medicine between 1988 and 2005...

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e31825d0d31

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A Conceptual Model for Faculty Development in Academic Medicine: The Underrepresented Minority Faculty Experience | September 2011 | Sandra P. Daley, MD, Shelia L. Broyles, PhD, MPH, Lourdes M. Rivera, MA, Jesse J. Brennan, MA, Ethel Regis Lu, MA, Vivian Reznik, MD, MPH

Abstract: In May 2010, the Association of American Medical Colleges reported that nonwhite professors have a lower promotion rate than white professors. A cohort of 30 underrepresented minority (URM) junior faculty who participated in a structured faculty development program at a public, research-intensive, academic medical center were followed in a 10-year longitudinal study. This paper reports on the career status of 12 of the 30 URM faculty...

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0027-9684(15)30435-1

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2009 - 2005

Increasing the Capacity of Health Sciences to Address Health Disparities | September 2009 | Sandra P. Daley, MD; Shelia L. Broyles, PhD, MPH; Lourdes M. Rivera, MA; Vivian M. Reznik, MD, MPH

Abstract: In order to create a cohort of investigators who are engaged in health disparities research, scholarship, and practice, and to increase the amount of funding in the university that is invested in research focused on reducing health disparities, the San Diego EXPORT Center implemented 2 major initiatives: (1) the support of underrepresented minority (URM) junior faculty development and (2) the funding for pilot research grants in health disparities...

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0027-9684(15)31034-8

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Retention of Junior Faculty in Academic Medicine at the University of California, San Diego  | January 2009 | Andrew Ries, MD, MPH, Deborah Wingard, PhD, Cindy Morgan, MS, Elizabeth Farrell, Sharon Letter, MS, Vivian Reznik, MD, MPH

AbstractPurpose To measure overall retention of junior faculty and evaluate the effects of a junior faculty development program on the retention of junior faculty at one institution. Method Quantitative survival analysis techniques were used to characterize retention of all new assistant professors hired at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine for 18 years between July 1988 and December 2005, and the influence on retention of a junior faculty development program...

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3181901174

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Career Experiences and Perceptions of Underrepresented Minority Medical School Faculty | September 2008 | Deborah L. Wingard, PhD, Vivian M. Reznik, MD, MPH, and Sandra P. Daley, MD 

Background: Although studies have outlined the benefit of diversity in academic medicine, the number of underrepresented minority (URM) faculty remains low. In 1998, University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine with the Hispanic Center of Excellence began a formalized proactive faculty development program. Over the past 10 years, recruitment and retention of URM junior faculty have increased. We undertook a study to explore factors associated with this improvement...

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0027-9684(15)31449-8

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Improving the Retention of Underrepresented Minority Faculty in Academic Medicine | September 2006 | Sandra Daley, MD, Deborah L. Wingard, PhD, Vivian Reznik, MD, MPH

Background: Although several studies have outlined the need for and benefits of diversity in academia, the number of underrepresented minority (URM) faculty in academic health centers remains low, and minonty faculty are primarily concentrated at the rank of assistant professor. In order to increase the diversity of the faculty of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine, the UCSD National Center for Leadership in Academic Medicine...

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2004 - 2000

Facilitating Faculty Success: Outcomes and Cost Benefit of the UCSD National Center of Leadership in Academic Medicine | October 2004 | Deborah L. Wingard, PhD, Karen A. Garmen, Vivian Reznik, MD, MPH

Problem and Background. In 1998, the University of California San Diego (UCSD) was selected as one of four National Centers of Leadership in Academic Medicine (NCLAM) to develop a structured mentoring program for junior faculty. Method. Participants were surveyed at the beginning and end of the seven-month program, and one-four years after. The institution provided financial information. Four primary outcomes associated with participation in NCLAM were assessed:...

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200410001-00003

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Development of Junior Faculty’s Self-efficacy: Outcomes of a National Center of Leadership in Academic Medicine | October 2001 | Karen A. Garmen, Deborah L. Wingard, PhD, Vivian Reznik, MD, MPH

In 2000, several articles were published discussing the importance of academic medical centers’ addressing the attitudes and obstacles junior faculty have concerning their career progress and success.1–3 All agreed that formal mentoring programs, whether gender-based or work-environment–driven, would have positive effects on junior faculty’s performance, attracting and retaining those who have chosen academic medicine as their careers...

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200110001-00025

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Innovative Mentoring Programs to Promote Gender Equity in Academic Medicine | January 2001 | Saralyn Mark, MD, Heather Link, MHS, Page S. Morahan, PhD, Linda Pololi, MBBS, Vivian Reznik, MD, MPH, Susanne Tropez-Sims, MD, MPH

Abstract: The authors describe the history, characteristics, and goals of four innovative programs, each in a medical school, that were established in 1998 to help faculty members of both sexes obtain mentors and thereby facilitate their career advancement. The programs were established as the result of an initiative by the Office on Women’s Health (OWH) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services...

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200101000-00011

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